Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are congenital lesions that cause brain haemorrhage in children and young adults. Current treatment modalities include surgery, radiosurgery and embolization. These treatments are generally effective only for small AVMs. Over one third of AVMs cannot be treated safely and effectively with existing options. Several animal models have been developed with the aims of understanding AVM pathophysiology and improving treatment. No animal model perfectly mimics a human AVM. Each model has limitations and advantages. Models contribute to the understanding of AVMs and hopefully to the development of improved therapies. This paper reviews animal models of AVMs and their advantages and disadvantages.
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