After the decline of the November Insurrection the Warsaw Royal University was closed. An important role of surgical ward at the Infant Jesus Hospital in the development of the Warsaw otolaryngology is pointed out. The professional and scientific activities of Aleksander Antoni Le Brun (1803-1868), who was the head of the surgical ward at the Infant Jesus Hospital are described in detail. He was a well-known Warsaw physician and an eminent surgeon. The Le Brun's achievements in the surgical treatment of otolaryngological diseases are strongly pointed out. The scientific and professional activities of such surgeons as Franciszek Groer (1807-1876), Ludwik Chwat (1831-1914) and Konstanty Miller (1823-1890) from the Orthodox Jewish Hospital and the Evangelical Hospital are described in detail. The otolaryngological operations performed in Warsaw by Bernhardt R. Langenbeck from Berlin are also depicted.
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